Dysgraphia is the inability to properly draw letters or symbols.
Dysgraphia is characterized by: deficient handwriting; writing that is not formed properly; scribbled and illegible letters; writing above and/or below the line; letters written in the wrong direction; letters made up of zigzag or segmented lines; errors when copying shapes; writing which is not organized; uneven spacing between letters, words or lines; and repeated erasing and returning to the proper line.
In cases of dysgraphia, the writer often puts pressure which is either too strong or too weak on the writing utensil.
These issues are partially caused by fine motor skill difficulties (such as difficulty in grasping the pencil), communicative difficulties (such as difficulty in distinguishing language and difficulty distinguishing between the sounds of letters and other sounds), visual perception difficulties (such as difficulty in distinguishing between letters) and hand-eye coordination difficulties.
(Original information was provided by Nitzan and is based on the "Students with Learning Disabilities" booklet published by the Ministry of Education.)
The Healthcare System
Diagnosis and Paramedical Treatments
- The health plans cover diagnoses and treatment by a multidisciplinary team at child development facilities for children up to age 9.
- Children up to age 6 are eligible for multidisciplinary treatment for learning disabilities.
- For more information, see:
Matriculation Examination (Bagrut) Accommodations
- Students with diagnosed learning disabilities are entitled to take the matriculation examinations under modified conditions. For more information see: Matriculation Examination Accommodations for those with Learning Disabilities. Students from families with financial difficulties may receive funding for the diagnosis from the Ministry of Education.
Psychometric Testing Accommodations
- Students with learning disabilities may take the Psychometric Test under modified conditions if their request is approved. For more information see: Psychometric Testing Accommodations.
Post-Secondary School Accommodations
- Students with learning disabilities are entitled to accommodations in the admissions process to institutions of post-secondary education, as well as over the course of their studies at those institutions. For more information, see: Accommodations for the Learning Disabled in Institutions of Post-Secondary Education.
- Those with learning disabilities may take the driving theory test orally. For more information, see: Theory Test Accommodations at the Ministry of Vehicle Licensing (Misrad HaRishui).
- Those with learning disabilities are entitled to special accommodations for the psycho-technic testing performed at IDF recruitment offices. For more information, see: IDF Recruitment Office Examination Accommodations.
Certification Examination Accommodations
- Lawyers: Those with a law degree who have completed their internship period and have a diagnosis indicating that they have a learning disability, may apply for special certification examination accommodations from the Israel Bar Association. For more information, see: Bar Association Examination Accommodations for the Learning Disabled.
- Accountants: Those with learning disabilities may apply for examination accommodations from the Board of Certified Public Accountants. For more information, see: Board of Certified Public Accountants Examination Accommodations.
- For more information regarding organizations that assist adults, adolescents and children with learning disabilities and attention disorders
- The Ministry of Health
- The Ministry of Education - Department of Learning Disabilities and Attention Disorders
- The National Insurance Institute
- The Israel Tax Authority
Laws & Regulations
- The Rights for Students with Learning Disabilities in Higher Education Law
- The Equal Rights for People with Disabilities Law
- Ministry of Health Director's circular 40/2010: Standards in ADHD Diagnosis in Children, Adolescents and Adults.
- Ministry of Education Director's circular, December 2003 - Testing Accommodations for Students with Internal and External Learning Disabilities: in Hebrew.
- Wikipedia: Dysgraphia
- Dyslexia.co.il: Professional website containing useful information about dyslexia and other learning disabilities
- Original translation performed by The Shira Pransky Project as part of a grant from The Fellowship Fund.